Emergency was in effect from 25 June 1975 until its withdrawal on 21 march 1977
President fakhruddin ali ahmed declared emergency under article 352(1) of the constitution for “internal disturbance”.
Government had cited threats to national security, as a war with pakistan had recently been concluded.
It was one of the most controversial periods of independent india’s history.
PM indira gandhi stucked to the advice of her son sanjay gandhi, whose own power had grown considerably over the last few years.
Siddhartha shankar ray, the then chief minister of west bengal, had proposed to the prime minister to impose an “internal emergency”.
The proposal was sent without discussion with the union cabinet, who only learnt of it and ratified it the next morning.
President fakhruddin ali ahmed declared a state of internal emergency upon the prime minister’s advice on the night of 25 june 1975.
Invoking article 352 of the indian constitution, gandhi granted herself extraordinary powers.
Government used police forces across the country to place thousands of protestors and strike leaders under preventive detention.
Vijayaraje scindia, jp, raj narain, morarji desai, charan singh, jivatram kripalani, atal bihari vajpayee, l. k. advani, satyendra narayan sinha and other protest leaders were immediately arrested.
Organizations like the rashtriya swayamsevak sangh (rss) and jamaat-e-islami along with some political parties were banned.
The electricity to all major newspapers was cut and the political-opposition arrested.
In tamil nadu the m. karunanidhi government was dissolved and the leaders of the dmk were incarcerated.
Elections for the parliament and state governments were postponed.
Sanjay gandhi initiated a birth control program, chiefly employing sterilization.
On 23 january 1977, gandhi called fresh elections for march and released all political prisoners.
In the lok sabha elections, held in february 1977, mrs. gandhi and sanjay both lost their lok sabha seats.